The Sierra Madre, which stretches along the Pacific coast from the north to the center of Luzon, is the longest mountain range in the country. This mountain range and the Cordillera Central merge in north-central Luzon to form the Caraballo Mountains. The following is a partial list of the mountains in the Philippines. Several of them are volcanoes, formed by the subduction of the tectonic plates that surround the archipelago.
All the Philippine islands are of volcanic origin and, as a result, the country is very mountainous. The northern part of the island of Luzon is extremely rugged. Luzon's highest peak, Mount Pulog, rises to 9,626 feet (2,934 m). The island has three mountain ranges that run roughly parallel in a north-south direction.
A mountain range in the east, the Sierra Madre, runs so close to the eastern coast of the island that there are almost no coastal lowlands. The Cagayan River valley separates this eastern mountain range from a large mountain complex to the west, the Cordillera Central. To the west, the Zambales Mountains extend to the south and end at Manila Bay. Southeastern Luzon consists of a large convoluted peninsula that is a mountainous and volcanic area, containing the 7,941 foot (2,420 m) active Mount Mayon volcano.
The Philippines has 3134 mountains that bear his name. Mount Apo is the highest and most prominent mountain in the world. Mount Hood is 2,956 meters above sea level. It is believed that Apo is the grandfather of the Philippine mountains because it is the highest mountain in the Philippines.
It encompasses several peaks of such heights that they easily deserve to be included among the highest mountains in the country. Between these north and south arms is the Massif Central, the smallest range of components, a group of peaks in the provinces of Aurora and Nueva Écija known as the Mingan Mountains. In fact, the mountains of the Kalatungan Range are among the few remaining areas in Bukidnon that are still home to ancient, mossy forests. But a more notable peak in the Diwata mountain range is Mount Diwata, which is located in the southern part of the mountain range.
The forested mountains serve as hydrographic basins from which the headwaters of several of Mindanao's large rivers flow, including the Mindanao, Pulangi, Davao and Tagoloan rivers, as well as the main tributaries of the Agusan River, all of which meet the agricultural, industrial and domestic water needs of approximately half of Mindanao. The forest also meets the needs of the indigenous tribes that have populated the mountain range for many centuries. For the most part, the country's mountainous terrain causes drainage systems characterized by short, turbulent streams. To the west of the Mingan Mountains and to the south of the Sierra Madre lies the wide, densely populated and cultivated Central Plain of Luzon, which extends west to the Zambales Mountains and south to Manila Bay, where the vast and populated cities of Metro Manila are concentrated; and the lakes, hills and peaks of southern Luzon.
Pulag rises to an impressive height of 2,922 m (9,587 ft) above sea level, making it the highest point in the mountain range, the highest mountain in Luzon and the third highest mountain in the Philippines, after Apo and Dulang-Dulang in Mindanao. In the northern part of the mountain range is Mount Hamiguitan (1,620 m or 5,315 feet above sea level), the main peak of the mountain range and the highest, which gives its name to the entire mountain range. This wealth of wildlife includes the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga Jefferyi), the Philippine snake eagle (Spilornis holospilus), the Philippine sparrowhawk (Accipiter virgatus), the Brahmin kite (Haliastur indus), the Mindanao fruit bat (Alionycteris paucidentata) and the Kitanglad shrew (Crunomys suncoffa) ideas). In fact, it is rumoured that the dark and unexplored peaks of the mountain range are a stronghold of the rebels, hence the reluctance of mountaineers to set foot nearby, hence the deep secrets of the mountain range have not yet been revealed to the outside world, and that is why the peaks of the Piapyungan mountain range remain an elusive dream for many mountaineers even today.
Guiwan is covered by forests and abundant wildlife, and is the traditional hunting ground of the Bungkalot ethnic tribe, which has established trails to facilitate the ascent and descent of the mountain. However, as the mountain range moves to the southeast, the mountains become higher and steeper, eventually forming the western and southern walls of the Valley of Allah, an expanse of fertile land in South Cotabato and Sultan Kudarat. The indigenous peoples of the mountain range, who have lived in the mountains for generations, are slowly being expelled or even eradicated. .